Aspects Taken Into Account During Prostate Cancer Staging

Publié par hamza lion vendredi 28 août 2015

By Nancy Gardner


Staging of cancer is meant to help the medical practitioner to tell how far it has spread. You will have to go through a series of scans and tests to determine the extent of the pathology. From the results, effective treatment plans can then be put into action. Prostate cancer staging is therefore very important.

The cancer of the prostate is staged using TNM stages. This is in the international standard of staging. It assesses the tumor, lymph nodes and the degree of spread. If the tumor is said to be in T1, it means that the area affected is too small and thus a diagnosis cannot be made through palpation or scans. A needle biopsy has to be done in order to pick this up.

T2 stage tumors are inside the prostate gland only. They are in three groups. The initial one is T2a where just half of gland lobes are affected. In T2b, more than half of the gland has been affected and lastly in T2c, all of lobes have been affected. If the malignancy has spread to the capsule of the gland, it is classified as T3 tumor.

In tumor stage 4, the malignancy cells have gone on to affect the other regions of the body. The areas which are likely to be affected include the bladder, rectum, pelvic cavity sides and the muscles. The third and fourth stages are the most critical ones.

The lymph nodes will be described to be positive if they have cancerous cells. This makes them enlarge. The degree of enlargement is directly proportional to the number of cancer cells in the lymph node. In NX stage, the nodes can not be checked while in N0 stage, the nodes close to the gland have not been affected. In N1 stage, the lymph nodes have cancerous cells.

When classifying according to the degree of spread, the first stage is M0 which signifies that the tumor is confined just within the pelvis. In M1, the cancer has finally got out of the pelvis. It has sub stages. The first one is the M1a where the lymph nodes next to the pelvis have been affected and M1b means the skeletal system has been affected by the tumor. In M1c, the malignancy has eventually spread to the rest of a body. A couple of factors are considered in doing the staging.

The cancer is said to be locally advanced if it has proceeded beyond the capsule. If it said to have metastasized, it means that it has reached the rest of body organs. The areas which are affected the most by cancer proceeding from the prostate gland are the bones and the lymphatic organs.

Even with the small tumors of prostrate, metastasis is possible. This cancer tends to be very aggressive. In such the staging of such a cancer, if the scans of the skeletal system come back positive, the staging should follow the metastasis aspect. It needs immediate action so as to minimize the spread and suffering. Also, complications will be minimized. The person can go on with his or her life normally for many years if the management follows the standard protocol.




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vendredi 28 août 2015

Aspects Taken Into Account During Prostate Cancer Staging

Posted by hamza lion 10:35, under | No comments

By Nancy Gardner


Staging of cancer is meant to help the medical practitioner to tell how far it has spread. You will have to go through a series of scans and tests to determine the extent of the pathology. From the results, effective treatment plans can then be put into action. Prostate cancer staging is therefore very important.

The cancer of the prostate is staged using TNM stages. This is in the international standard of staging. It assesses the tumor, lymph nodes and the degree of spread. If the tumor is said to be in T1, it means that the area affected is too small and thus a diagnosis cannot be made through palpation or scans. A needle biopsy has to be done in order to pick this up.

T2 stage tumors are inside the prostate gland only. They are in three groups. The initial one is T2a where just half of gland lobes are affected. In T2b, more than half of the gland has been affected and lastly in T2c, all of lobes have been affected. If the malignancy has spread to the capsule of the gland, it is classified as T3 tumor.

In tumor stage 4, the malignancy cells have gone on to affect the other regions of the body. The areas which are likely to be affected include the bladder, rectum, pelvic cavity sides and the muscles. The third and fourth stages are the most critical ones.

The lymph nodes will be described to be positive if they have cancerous cells. This makes them enlarge. The degree of enlargement is directly proportional to the number of cancer cells in the lymph node. In NX stage, the nodes can not be checked while in N0 stage, the nodes close to the gland have not been affected. In N1 stage, the lymph nodes have cancerous cells.

When classifying according to the degree of spread, the first stage is M0 which signifies that the tumor is confined just within the pelvis. In M1, the cancer has finally got out of the pelvis. It has sub stages. The first one is the M1a where the lymph nodes next to the pelvis have been affected and M1b means the skeletal system has been affected by the tumor. In M1c, the malignancy has eventually spread to the rest of a body. A couple of factors are considered in doing the staging.

The cancer is said to be locally advanced if it has proceeded beyond the capsule. If it said to have metastasized, it means that it has reached the rest of body organs. The areas which are affected the most by cancer proceeding from the prostate gland are the bones and the lymphatic organs.

Even with the small tumors of prostrate, metastasis is possible. This cancer tends to be very aggressive. In such the staging of such a cancer, if the scans of the skeletal system come back positive, the staging should follow the metastasis aspect. It needs immediate action so as to minimize the spread and suffering. Also, complications will be minimized. The person can go on with his or her life normally for many years if the management follows the standard protocol.




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